Google Search Engine work with these three phases.

1) Crawling

2) Indexing

3) Ranking

What is crawling?

You can assume crawling as scanning. Generally Googlebot get the necessary information from your site like some text, media or files. You can also use Robots.txt to prevent crawling into specific directory.

I suggest, you should link your all the web pages in a proper way, just like Wikipedia does, it will help to crawl your website better, and better. So whenever you changed something in your webpage, it will quickly change into the search results as well.

I already wrote a detailed article about How Google actually crawl your website, it will really helpful for any level of webmaster.

What is Indexing?

Once, crawling is done by Googlebot, Google start Indexing crawled web pages into the search result.

Google displays a rich snippet if the structure data is well formatted with schema tags. As per my opinion you should use rich snippet in your webpage, currently I am using breadcrumbs.

What is ranking?

No one will be ranked, always on TOP. Google changes its algorithm to display high quality web pages on the first page to satisfy the user query. Google uses 200 + signals to find out best web pages as per user query.